were denotes implantation time, beam area and is the charge per ion. Typical beam currents and implantation doses range from and . The lowest energies used start at the sub area for ultrashallow junctions to the range for deep wells.
When the ions enter the substrate they continously loose energy and change direction by collisions with the target atoms (see also fig. ). Due to the random nature of the collisions the total distance travelled (range) and its projection on the direction parallel to the ion beam (projected range) are random variables. denotes the projected range, the depth were most ions stop. The projected straggle describes the statistical fluctuation of .
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